Photographers scramble to
take a picture of investigative
journalist Hopewell Chin’ono
and opposition leader Job
Sikhala at Harare Magistrates
Court in August 2020

extent of protection of the rights to freedom
of expression and access to information online
and offline, while Principle 7 calls on states to
take specific measures to address the needs of
marginalised groups in a manner that guarantees
the full enjoyment of their rights to freedom of
expression and access to information. Further, the
Declaration lays out justifiable limitations under
Principle 9, and provides for media independence
in Principle 12.
The Declaration also provides for standards
on protection of journalists and other media
practitioners under Principle 19, the safety
of journalists and other media practitioners
under Principle 20, protection of reputations in
Principle 21, the right of access to information
and procedures therein in Principles 26-36,
access to the internet in Principle 37-39, privacy
and the protection of personal information in
Principle 40 and privacy and communication
surveillance under Principle 41, among others,
which we will apply to assess the frameworks on
freedom of expression and access to information
in Angola, Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Malawi,
Mozambique, Tanzania, Namibia, Zambia and
Further, this report also makes reference,
where practicable, to the United Nations’
Sustainable Development Goal 16, specifically

target 16.10: on ensuring public access to
information and protection of fundamental
freedoms, in accordance with national legislation
and international agreements. Indicator 16.10.2
records the number of countries that adopt and
implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy
guarantees for public access to information. (4) In
the Southern African region Botswana, Eswatini,
Lesotho, Namibia and Tanzania are yet to enact
access to information laws.

There is a plethora of laws inimical to freedom
of expression, access to information and
media freedom in force in the countries under
review. Most countries still have legal and policy
frameworks that limit the media’s mandate.
In 2017, Angola’s legislature enacted a bundle
of laws, dubbed the Social Communication
Legislative Package, 2017, as amended,
including the Broadcast Law, Television Law,
Journalist Code of Conduct and the Press Law,
aimed at advancing media freedom and freedom
of expression.
The bundle of laws establishes the Social

Select target paragraph3