They are crucial tools for promoting development in African countries, especially where internet access is extremely
limited6. They also have the potential to provide benefits such as improvement in education, health, agriculture and
in business entrepreneurship in deprived African communities.

2.1 Media Landscape in marginalised communities in Zimbabwe
The rural media landscape has been evolving - this is mainly due to evolving changes in technology, political economy
and destruction of key national communications infrastructure. It is now composed of traditional media, radio, television
and new media, scant presence of the print media as well as open view HD satellite TV. Previously, there used to
be private bags and postal boxes, public telephone booths, newspapers, magazines and fixed landlines which played
a key role in exchange of information, linking town and country. CICs are targeted to provide ICT services and bridge
the digital divide between rural and urban areas. In most rural areas, this infrastructure is now almost non-existent
or marginally present. Only traditional media has proved to be resilient and managed to integrate itself with the new
rural media landscape.
Table 1: Available Media in rural and marginalised communities in Zimbabwe




• Radio is the most accessed form of media in rural areas. About 2,339,823 households had
access to the radio: 997,929 lived in urban areas while 1,341,894 live in the rural areas.
• National radio stations in Zimbabwe include ZBC radio stations such as Radio Zimbabwe,
National FM and Power FM. Regional/Provincial Radio Stations such as Skyz Metro FM
-Bulawayo, Diamond FM - Mutare and Nyaminyami FM - Kariba and Hevoi FM Masvingo and Community Radio Stations such as Vemuganga in Chipinge and Chimanimani
FM, Madziwa FM and Avuxeni FM in Chiredzi. Alternative /Private Radio Stations like
ZiFM Stereo, are also available.
• However, radio has the following limitations: limited coverage due to poor signal or infrastructure
deficit; it is lopsided (and biased), as it does not provide room for listeners to determine
programming content; it is captured by ruling political elites and biased towards the ruling
party/government and its politically connected business people; it has an urban- biased and
limited in terms of language diversity; programming is scant on news and current affairs while
dominated by music (which covers 57% of airplay)7.



• The GeoPoll Media Establishment Survey Zimbabwe 2019 Report, shows that up to 68%
of the respondents surveyed indicated that they had a working TV.

S. Buhigiro. (2012). The Role of CICs in Promoting Socio-Economic Development in Rwanda. Available at: : (Accessed on
15 October 2022) .

7 MISA-Zim, (2020) Access to media and media usage in rural communities of Zimbabwe – Final Report.

MISA Zimbabwe • The State of Access and Use of Community Information Centres (CICs) in Zimbabwe


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